Anything is possible, but if your engine feels strong and isn't popping off CELs, or misfiring then you're probably fine. I have reason to believe that A LOT of people do a CAI install and then drive the piss out of their cars for years without tuning (not advisable for long term use).
Personally, I would put back the stock intake as soon as possible. Until then it's probably advisable to go light on the throttle or just don't drive it until you get the stock airbox and ducts back on.
After that you might want to reset the ecu if it runs weird, but this might not be necessary. If after that your motor is still acting strange then give us more info, if not, then enjoy the drive!
Good luck and welcome!